Chapter 6. Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labour in Society
David Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist most famous for his book The Division of Labour In Society. Durkheim was considered a prodigy while he was in school. The main objective of the book was to explain the relationship between an individual and social solidarity. The chapter looked into his other works and the theories he developed. The “Division of Labour” was an important theme that Durkheim went into extreme detail with. He believed that by changing the “division of labour”, you could change the way that society had order and how unified everyone was. He also believed that the way that people cooperated with one another determined how smoothly things ran with the “division of labour”
Mechanical and Organic solidarity are two concepts of social solidarity that was coined by Durkheim. Mechanical solidarity deals with smaller societies with little division of labour and it is based on likeness. Organic solidarity deals with the opposite of Mechanical solidarity. It deals with the division of labour directly and it deals with larger societies. Mechanical societies have become rare in the world that we live in due to the development of the nations of the world.
The chapter also talks about the abnormal forms of the Division of Labour. The first example is know as an anomie, which refers to the the industrial and commercial crises and bankruptcies that represent a lack of adjustment in the division of labour. (Bratton, Denham, Deutschmann 149). An example of an anomie is the crisis that happened with the Big Three when they needed to be bailed out in order to be at a sustainable level. Anomies exists in the corporate world and in the industrial factory system.
The second abnormal division of labour is the forced division of labour. Forced division of labour focuses on structural inequalities. Because of the different social classes, people who are in a lower class will not receive the same type of opportunities. Because of inheritance, people who are undeserving of wealth will receive all of the advantages that people who are deserving wont. Durkheim suggests that inheritance should be eliminated in order to give everyone an equal opportunities. He suggests that the the wealth should be sent to corporations so everything would be fair.